How does a quadcopter can fly in any direction, descends or lift at one touch on the controller stick? These are some questions arise in the mind of beginners. Actually, the drone has four propellers and motors that can change its speed and direction while flying to move it in any direction. Moreover, this list of consumer drones can automatically fly in a programmed direction with the help of a software. So, let’s take a look at how this technology works.
The remote control you use to control the drone sends information through signals via ESC to change its direction, RPM (Revolution per minute) and Thrust. Moreover, the controller uses the data from Gyro, GPS, and IMU before sending the signals to the quadcopter. Drones are a very latest technology but it uses some principles of gravity, and aircraft flight.
Nowadays, all the work is done automatically, we just send the signal from the remote to lift, descend or move the drone. You do not need to think, what the motors or propellers are doing. If you know how the drone works then you can be able to locate the issue when your drone is not flying properly. Sometimes, the problem is not visual, so the knowledge of the working of the drone can help you locate it. Moreover, you can be able to change the thrust and speed of your quadcopter by making some alterations in the design.
Suppose you are designing your own quadcopter, then this information can help you determine which type of propeller or motor you need. You can make a Best Drone under 50 Dollars without any problem with this information.
How A Quadcopter Flies?
The quadcopter remote sends the signals to the central flight controller. Then the central flight controllers pass the information to the ESCs that in turn change the speed of the motors.
Central Flight Controller
Remember that the flight controller also takes the information from GPS, Gyroscope and IMU modules if your quadcopter has these sensors. After that, it converts the information using flight algorithms and passes this data to the electronic speed controllers. Moreover, modern drones use other sensors too like obstacle detection sensors and return to home etc. The flight controller takes the data from these sensors to control the flight stability.
Electronic Speed Control Circuits (ESCs)
Every quadcopter on the planet has ESC circuit. The main function of this circuit is to change the motor speed, direction and also cause braking. Every modern drone has this circuit and it is one of the essential components of the drone. It not only provides high frequency, power, resolution but also 3 phase AC power to the motors. Moreover, this circuit is very compact and small. This circuit provides all the variations like RPM thrust and speed that help control the quadcopter while flying.
For lifting the drone in the air, you need a force equal to or greater than the force of gravity. This is the basic idea behind lifting a drone or an aircraft. On this theory, a drone is able to lift or descend in the air.
Newton’s third law says that every force has a reaction in opposite direction. So, when the propellers spin, they push the air downwards and in the direction, a force is created that lifts the drone in an upward direction. It also means that if the speed of propellers is fast then they will push more air and will lift more in the air.
For ascending the drone in the air, the upward force must be greater than the force of gravity.
For descending the drone, decrease the thrust speed so the upward force decreases against the force of gravity.
To hover still your drone, the upward force must be equal to the force of gravity.
Yaw is basically the spinning of the quadcopter. This movement is basically the rotating of the head of the drone.
Pitch is basically the forward or backward movement of the drone. When you press the throttle stick forward, it makes the quadcopter to tilt and move forward or backward.
Roll means the movement of quadcopter in the left or right direction.